Economies of scale

Economies of scale


Economies of scale are cost advantages that a company can gain as a result of well-organized production processes. We can better understand the economies of scale by looking at the history of 20 feet Containers & Shipping. In 1950, a ship could carry 700 containers. Today a supertanker can carry 20,000 containers. These large supertanker ships have made global shipping very economical. That has been changing the entire competitive environment of manufacturing industries all over the world.

We get more for our cash when our organization attains economies of scale. Therefore, while we can gain preliminary extra costs by investing in new machinery, extra labor, or additional raw materials, we save money on the average cost of each unit we produce. Look at the below figure:

Economies of scale

This simple principle has been the driving force behind a lot of main economic developments. In this article, we will learn about the economies of scale that may provide businesses an economical benefit.


Economies of scale relate to a range of organizational and business situations. This can apply at various levels, for example, a production, plant, or full enterprise. Economies of scale take place when average costs begin decreasing as output increases.

A number of economies of scale have a physical and engineering basis. For example;

  • The capital cost of manufacturing facilities
  • Friction loss of transportation
  • Industrial equipment.

Economies of scale may be understood by a well-founded at any stage of the production process. Production mentions the economic concept of production and includes all activities linked to the commodity in this case and not relating to the final buyer. Therefore, a business can choose to apply economies of scale in its marketing division. That can possible by employing a large number of marketing experts. A business may similarly embrace the same in its input sourcing division by moving from human labor to machine labor.

Economies of scale

Categories of Economies of Scale

Internal Economies of Scale

This states to economies that are exclusive to a stable.


A firm can hold a patent over a mass-production machine. That enables it to lower its average cost of production more than other companies in the industry.

There are further five types of internal economies of scale that can value companies:

  1. Technical
  2. Purchasing
  3. Managerial
  4. Financial
  5. Risk-Bearing


  1. Technical

We can get technical economies of scale by increasing productivity. Similarly, we can achieve technical economies of scale with the size of the production process.

  1. Purchasing

Bulk buying may cut costs intensely. We’ll to be expected have more bargaining power than the smaller competitors to negotiate lower prices with the suppliers if we’re a big manufacturer.

  1. Managerial

We can do managerial economies of scale by capitalizing on expertise as our organization breeds. Professional managers who manage and develop production systems can modernize processes and upsurge productivity. That consequences in inferior average unit costs and economies of scale.

  1. Financial

Bigger organizations frequently have well credit ratings than minor ones. As they have additional assets to use as security. This means that they may use more inexpensively acceptable to finance investment. They can understand even greater economies of scale. They then gain additional rewards from their investment. They are open means that it costs them less to use due to the lower interest rates.

Companies that are referred to the stock market have more access to new finance. Therefore, to even better economies of scale over the sale of equities or stocks.

  1. Risk-Bearing

The extra a company expands its doings and extents its costs, the less general danger it takes up in any one line of business and the lower its unit costs would be.

The capability to take the possibility of functioning complex and posh research is another advantage for big companies. For instance, large pharmaceutical companies are capable of income from this feature of economies of scale. Larger companies may likewise have enough money to market and advertise their products better.

External Economies of Scale

These types talk about economies of scale liked by a full industry.


Assume the government needs to raise steel production. For this purpose, the government proclaims that all steel producers who employ more than 2000 workers would be given a 20 percent tax break. As a result, companies paying less than 2000 workers may possibly lower their average cost of production by hiring more workers. This is an instance of an outside economy of scale. That changes a complete industry or sector of the economy.

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